What States Are No-Fault States? (Updated 2023)

WRITTEN BY: Julia Matseikovich


Understanding the difference between no-fault and at-fault states is crucial in navigating auto insurance. Imagine relying solely on your insurance for injuries in a car accident, regardless of fault. That’s the reality for drivers in no-fault states.

Discover which states are classified as no-fault states for auto insurance and the implications for drivers. Gain valuable insights into navigating the insurance landscape of no-fault states, whether you’re a seasoned driver or a new car owner.

What is a no-fault state?

A no-fault state is a term that describes a specific type of auto insurance system in which drivers must have a minimum amount of personal injury protection (PIP) coverage. Regardless of who is at fault in an accident, drivers in a no-fault state must file a claim with their own insurance company to cover the costs of their injuries. This means that even if another driver is responsible for the accident, your own insurance will handle the medical expenses associated with your injuries.

The right to sue for medical injuries is typically limited in no-fault states. Generally, drivers can only pursue legal action if their injuries meet certain severity thresholds. Each state may have its own criteria for defining the severity of injuries. However, it’s important to note that property damage liability coverage still applies in no-fault states, and the at-fault driver remains responsible for any property damage they cause. Understanding the concept of a no-fault state is crucial for drivers to navigate the unique insurance requirements and coverage limitations that exist in these states.

The 12 no-fault states

In the United States, 12 states operate under the no-fault insurance system. These states have specific laws in place that require drivers to use their own car insurance coverage, known as personal injury protection, to pay for their injuries following a car crash. The 12 no-fault states are Florida, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Utah.

Since these states follow the no-fault system, Kentucky, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania drivers can opt out of the no-fault policy. This means that drivers in these states can choose to operate under a different insurance system, such as the traditional at-fault system, where the at-fault driver’s insurance typically covers the injuries and damages of the other party involved in the accident.

Understanding whether your state operates as a no-fault state or allows opt-out options is crucial when it comes to selecting the right auto insurance coverage. It’s essential to familiarize yourself with your state’s specific laws and requirements to ensure you have the appropriate coverage in place.

How no-fault insurance works

In no-fault states, the insurance coverage takes on a slightly different approach. When a driver is involved in an accident in a no-fault state, they must rely on their own car insurance, specifically personal injury protection (PIP), to cover the costs of their injuries. This means that regardless of who is at fault in the accident, drivers must file a claim with their own insurance company to receive compensation for their medical expenses and related costs.

Property damage in no-fault states operates differently. While personal injury protection covers the medical aspects, the responsibility for property damage still falls on the at-fault driver. This means that if another driver is found to be at fault for the accident, they are still obligated to pay for the property damage they have caused. This division ensures that even in no-fault states, the party responsible for the accident takes financial responsibility for the damage they inflicted on the other party’s vehicle.

Understanding how no-fault insurance works is crucial for drivers in these states, as it outlines the specific protocols for handling medical expenses and property damage, ultimately providing clarity and guidance in the event of an accident.

Limited right to sue in no-fault states

One of the defining characteristics of no-fault states is the limited right to sue for medical injuries. In these states, drivers may only be able to pursue legal action if their injuries meet specific severity thresholds. Each state establishes its own criteria for determining the severity required to proceed with a lawsuit. Generally, these thresholds are in place to prevent an overwhelming number of minor injury claims from burdening the court system.

On the other hand, in at-fault states, the ability to sue for medical injuries may also be subject to severity thresholds. However, the criteria and requirements for pursuing legal action may differ from those in no-fault states. In at-fault states, drivers can typically file a lawsuit if their injuries or medical bills meet the specified thresholds set by state laws.

Understanding the limitations on the right to sue in no-fault states and the potential thresholds in at-fault states is crucial for individuals seeking compensation for their injuries. It highlights the legal framework surrounding personal injury claims and ensures that individuals know the criteria they must meet to pursue legal action in their respective states.

Comparison: No-Fault vs. At-Fault Insurance

No-fault car insurance and at-fault insurance systems represent two distinct approaches to handling auto insurance claims. In a no-fault state, the driver’s own insurance company covers their injuries and related expenses through personal injury protection coverage, regardless of who caused the accident. In contrast, an at-fault insurance system holds the responsible driver liable for the other party’s injuries and damages.

The claims process and timeframes differ between these two types of states. In no-fault states, the claims process tends to be quicker and more streamlined. Drivers file claims with their own insurers, eliminating the need for fault determination and reducing investigation time. In at-fault states, fault determination precedes liability assignment, making the claims process more complex. This often leads to longer claim processing times as investigations are conducted to establish fault and liability.

Understanding the distinctions between no-fault and at-fault insurance systems helps drivers comprehend the procedures and timelines of filing claims. Whether operating under a no-fault or at-fault system, individuals must familiarize themselves with their state’s specific regulations to navigate the claims process effectively.

Minimum insurance requirements in no-fault states

No-fault states have specific minimum insurance requirements that drivers must meet to comply with the law. These requirements vary but typically include personal injury protection coverage, bodily injury liability coverage, property damage liability coverage, and uninsured motorist coverage.

Minimum insurance requirements by state

StateMinimum requirements
Florida$10,000 property damage liability (PDL), $10,000 PIP
Hawaii$20,000/$40,000 bodily injury liability (BIL), $10,000 PDL, $10,000 PIP
Kansas$25,000/$50,000 BIL, $25,000 PDL, $25,000/$50,000 uninsured/underinsured motorist coverage (UM/UIM), $4,500 PIP
Kentucky$25,000/$50,000 BIL, $25,000 PDL, $10,000 PIP
Massachusetts$20,000/$40,000 BIL, $5,000 PDL, $20,000/$40,000 UM/UIM, $8,000 PIP
Michigan$50,000/$100,000 BIL, $10,000 PDL (outside Michigan), $1 million PDL (inside Michigan), $50,000-$250,000 PIP
Minnesota$30,000/$60,000 BIL, $10,000 PDL, $25,000/$50,000 UM/UIM, $40,000 PIP
New Jersey$5,000 PDL, $15,000 PIP (basic coverage option)
New York$25,000/$50,000 BIL, $10,000 PDL, $25,000/$50,000 UM/UIM, $50,000 PIP
North Dakota$25,000/$50,000 BIL, $25,000 PDL, $25,000/$50,000 UM/UIM, $30,000 PIP
Pennsylvania$15,000/$30,000 BIL, $5,000 PDL, $5,000 medical benefits
Utah$25,000/$65,000 BIL, $15,000 PDL, $3,000 PIP

Choice no-fault insurance states

In three states, drivers can choose between limited tort restrictions and full tort liability. These states are commonly referred to as “choice no-fault states.” The states where drivers have this choice are Kentucky, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Choosing limited legal rights accepts restrictions on suing, while full legal rights allow unrestricted legal action.

Switching to full-tort policies may raise premiums due to increased financial risk for insurers. Evaluate options and impact on premiums before choosing liability coverage.

Add-on no-fault insurance states

In addition to the 12 no-fault states, ten states have add-on PIP coverage options. These “add-on no-fault states” let drivers decide if they want PIP in their policies. While health insurance covers some medical aspects, add-on PIP provides additional benefits.

PIP covers lost income and funeral expenses after a car accident. Add-on state drivers should assess their needs and consider including PIP for additional financial protection.

Property damage in no-fault states

No-fault insurance covers personal injuries, but property damage responsibility rests with the at-fault driver. If another driver causes damage, their insurance should pay. Comprehensive or collision coverage is vital to avoid expenses if you’re at fault.

Comprehensive or collision coverage protects damages caused by the policyholder, ensuring that you are financially covered in such situations. It is vital to have the appropriate coverage in place to safeguard against unexpected property damage costs in no-fault states.


Are all states in the United States considered to be either no-fault or at-fault states?

No, not all states fall strictly into the categories of no-fault or at-fault states. Some states offer choice or add-on options.

Can I sue for injuries in a no-fault state?

In most no-fault states, there are limitations on the right to sue for injuries. However, there may be exceptions depending on the severity of the injuries or other factors.

What is the advantage of having no-fault insurance?

The advantage of no-fault insurance is that regardless of fault, your own insurance company will cover your medical expenses, providing faster access to necessary treatment.

Will my insurance rates increase if I switch to a full-tort policy?

Yes, switching to a full-tort policy in a choice no-fault state may lead to higher insurance premiums due to the increased potential for legal action and higher financial risk for insurers.

Is personal injury protection (PIP) coverage necessary in add-on states if I have health insurance?

It is advisable to consider adding PIP coverage in add-on states as health insurance may not cover all aspects, such as lost income or funeral expenses resulting from a car accident.

Find the right auto insurance for your needs

Understanding the concept of no-fault insurance and its implications in different states is crucial for every driver. Fill out our online form to compare rates and find the right coverage. Take control of your auto insurance now for peace of mind on the road.

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